Science and Technology in Indonesi

After gaining independence in 1945 from Netherlands,  Indonesia issued a document  titled Constitution 1945 of Republic of Indonesia*, which is this document on chapter 31 emphasized the importance of science and technology development in Indonesia, especially after the WWII and last civil war in Indonesia.  Under Suharto, President of Indonesia at the time, began promoting science and technology by launching five year development plans which lead to the creation of Indonesia Ministry of Research and Technology in 1970 and later National Research Centre for Science and Technology and Life Science Centre. 


The PUSPIPTEK remained as Indonesia’s main research complex. National Research Council is formed in 1984 which its members were from academia, R&D institutions, and industry as government advisor on S&T and to collaborate with Ministry of Research and Technology.  Few planned five year development on S&T were initiated under PELITA I(1969-1974), PELITA II(1974-1979), PELITA III (1979-1984) and PELITA V (1984-1989) were initiated to focus on agriculture, industry, mining, employment opportunities, importance on pure and applied science.  PELITA V focused prepare formulation on principal national programmer in research and technology fields through planning and development strategy.


Even though after changes in administration in Indonesia, the national plan on science and tech continues with developments such as National Development 2000 which were made law in 2002 for national system of research and development on application of science and technology,mechanisms and schemes on technology transfer, strategy policy of National Science and Tech Development 2001-2005 by IMRT, law of 2003 on education system.


Currently, Indonesia also cooperating with USAID to support  science and tech  development and innovation  which include transfer of scientific knowledge and technologies which provide a catalyst to Indonesia  to move forward on science & tech development and innovation progress which started since its independence in 1945. USAID assisted Indonesia  by introducing medical technology which reduced the TB diagnose from weeks to hours,  assisted Indonesian  Academy of Sciences and Knowledge Sector Initiative to establish Indonesia science fund for world-class research to ensure Indonesia’s competitiveness in science and technology development.  USAID also creates a mobile and web technology to reduce delays and save lives in medical crisis.  USAID also collaborated with Indonesia government to improve its quality of scientific research, evidence-based decision and innovative approaches achieve Indonesian development goals.  They also involved in tackling global challenges, especially in health sector, STEM education, marine conservation, biodiversity and climate change. USAID also arranged collaboration between Indonesian government and  private sector to implement technology to achieve goals.

Like other developing countries, as of now Indonesia is not in the list of countries of leading countries in science and tech although notable scientific technological advancement and achievement done by Indonesians and as a developing country, they are one of nations that develop their own aerospace technology.  Indonesia has made  various advances in food technology where they use traditional knowledge in fermentation techniques which led to the development of fermented food that are popular in Indonesia now such as tempe and beverages such as tapai or tuak.


According to Jakarta Post, on April 3, 2017
Students from Brawijaya University, East Malang, Java Province had created an app that monitors the air quality in Indonesia which uses air quality detector and microcontroller on Android smartphones which the app called SMOQ. This app can be used a reference by the government to decide on the air quality of the area, whether to declare an emergency for the area that recorded the worst air quality, which always 200 and above. Indonesia Science Fund, which is under current Indonesian President Joko Widodo will spend US$ 60 million a year to fund 200 research proposal and ISF will grant USD 100,000 for every successful proposal on science and technology research which aimed to create a suitable scientific culture in Indonesia and bridge the gap for financing scientific research in Indonesia.  They also collaborated with other ministries in Indonesia and also international partners such as UK Academy of Science and Australia Academy of Science.Indonesia also cooperated with France in science and technology sector by initiating the NUSANTARA program which aimed to promote new scientific and tech projects between Indonesia and France which includes public and private sectors.  NUSANTARA program includes the following fields, which is food technology, new/renewable energy, health and medicine, marine and maritime technology, transportation technology, information and communication technology, human and social sciences, climate change and environment conservation, water and land tech and disaster management.  In August 2016, Australia Academy  of Science attended the 3rd Indonesia-Australia dialogue held in Yogyarkata where  the session explored cooperation in areas like food and agriculture and information and communication technology where it will provide benefit to both countries, in terms of improving health services and precision farming, where technology will assist farmers to  work smart and efficient.
Australia is exploring on solar energy test, wind, ocean, and bioenergy. They also had interest in solar-powered generation, which will power small villages, renewable energy sources to provide electricity to interior areas in Indonesia are the main sector both countries current exploring in. Science diplomacy between Indonesia and Australia  will place high priority on cooperating with Indonesia to strengthen research collaboration to resolve common environment and technology problems which will also provide alternative communication  way in terms of serious diplomatic issues between the both nations, if it happens anytime. The digital era expansion in Indonesia is underway where many start-ups were established and achieve success which has led to more investment in e-commerce which focuses on business and economy. Indonesian government has endorsed a startup, which called the 1,000 startup movement which aims to nurture the growth of new startups till 2020.

Recently, Grab, a ride-hailing platform in Southeast Asia, has launched its own master plan for Indonesia,  which called as Grab 4 Indonesia 2020 which were endorsed by a body under Indonesia coordinating board which will see its investment worth USD 700 million over the next four years in aim to become Southeast Asia’s largest digital economy by 2020.  This will also provide opportunity to all Indonesians to move into digital economy including a Grab R&D center in Jarkata to develop technology innovations  for the Indonesian market and launching a social impact fund to invest in companies focused on financial inclusion and increase mobile payments and finance opportunities across Indonesia. The pillars of Grab 4 Indonesia master plan includes: creating new technology jobs and upgrade human capital, investment in Technopreneurship, and expand access for mobile payments and financial opportunities.

Science and technology industry in Indonesia still growing and despite all challenges that lies on them such as 1997-98 financial crises, 1997/98 racial riots in Indonesia and many other crisis, they still able to went through it and now heading towards a tech-advanced nation by 2020 as stated by earlier planning  system. The technology giant, Apple, whom produce Apple phones, PCs, laptops, tablets and other popular devices has planned to set up a research and development center in Indonesia which is currently ongoing and it will be located in Sumatra or a city in Java Province. Indonesia will continue cooperate with other country in developing its science and tech plus innovation sector, which will need cooperation by Indonesian citizen itself, whom will bring the knowledge and eventually use it  for the future generation.